A Record Number of Job Openings: October 15 – 19

Employers continued to have difficulty filling job openings in August. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending October 19.

#1The number of job openings jumped to another record high in August. Nonfarm employers had a seasonally adjusted 7.136 million job openings on the final day of August, up 59,000 for the month and 18.1 percent from a year earlier. (By comparison, there were 6.234 million people unemployed during the same month.) Among the industries that the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported having the biggest year-to-year percentage gains in job openings were construction (+38.6 percent), financial activities (+28.7 percent), wholesale trade (+19.6 percent), accommodation/food services (+19.4 percent), retail (+18.0 percent), and manufacturing (+17.3 percent). Employers continued to struggle in filling these jobs as 5.784 million people were hired during August. While lagging the number of job openings, the number of people hired was up 71,000 for the month and 5.0 percent from August 2017. Industries with the greatest year-to-year percentage increases in hiring were retail (+18.6 percent), wholesale trade (+10.9 percent), and accommodation/food services (+6.2 percent). 5.706 million people left their jobs during August, up 110,000 for the month and 6.8 percent from a year earlier. 3.577 million workers voluntarily departed their jobs during the month, 12.7 percent ahead of a year-ago and indicative of workers confident about their job marketplace. Layoffs affected 1.622 million people, down 10.1 percent from the count of 12 months earlier.JOLTS August 18 101918

#2Manufacturing output grew modestly in September. The Federal Reserve reports that manufacturing output grew 0.2 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month, following matching 0.3 percent gains in both July and August. Manufacturing output has increased 3.5 percent over the past 12 months. Durable goods manufacturing jumped 0.6 percent (led by motor vehicles, wood products, primary metals, and aerospace). Nondurable goods output slipped 0.1 percent, pulled down by textiles and apparel. Overall industrial production gained 0.3 percent in September and has risen 5.1 percent over the past year. Mining output jumped 0.5 percent for the month and 13.4 percent since September 2017, boosted by continued strength in both oil and gas extraction. Output at utilities was unchanged during September but has a 12-month comparable of +5.4 percent over the past year.

#3September was a weak month for retail sales. The Census Bureau estimates U.S. retail and food services sales inched up 0.1 percent during the month to a seasonally adjusted $509.0 billion. Even with the modest increase during September, sales have grown 4.7 percent over the past year. Sales at auto dealers/parts stores jumped 0.8 percent while gas station sales slowed 0.8 percent. Net of both, core retail sales were unchanged during September but have expanded 5.0 percent over the past 12 months. Sales improved during the month at retailers focused on furniture (+1.1 percent), electronics/appliances (+0.9 percent), sporting goods/hobbies (+0.7 percent), apparel (+0.5 percent), and building materials (+0.1 percent). Sales slumped, however, at restaurants/bars (-1.8 percent), department stores (-0.8 percent), and grocery stores (-0.1 percent).

#4Existing home sales sputtered again in September. The National Association of Realtors reports that sales of previously owned homes fell 3.4 percent during the month to a seasonally adjusted annualized rate of 5.15 million homes. This was not only a 4.1 percent drop from the same month a year earlier, it also was the measure’s seventh consecutive decline and the slowest pace of existing home sales in nearly three years. Sales failed to increase in all four Census regions, although transaction volume managed to hold even with August levels in the Midwest. All four Census regions had negative 12-month comparables: West (-12.2 percent), Northeast (-5.6 percent), Midwest (-1.5 percent), and the South (0.5 percent). A part of the problem remained a lack of homes on the market—there were 1.88 million homes available for sale at the end of September, down 1.6 percent from August but up 1.1 percent from a year earlier. This was the equivalent to a paltry 4.4 month supply of homes. The resulting median sales price has risen 4.2 percent over the past year to $258,100. NAR’s press release also ties recent sales weakness to “a decade’s high mortgage rates” that it says were “preventing consumers from making quick decisions on home purchases.”

#5The U.S. budget deficit surged 17.0 percent during the just-completed fiscal year. The U.S. Treasury Department reports that the federal government collected $3.329 trillion in receipts during the just completed FY2018, up 0.4 percent from FY2018. Outlays, however, jumped 3.2 percent during the same 12 months to $4.108 trillion. The resulting budget deficit of -$778.996 billion represented a 17.0 percent jump from FY2017. A closer look at receipts finds individual tax collections surged 6.1 percent during FY2018 while corporate tax receipts plummeted 31.1 percent. The U.S. government had accumulated a total debt of $21.460 trillion by September 30, 2018.

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending October 13, 2018, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 210,000 (-5,000 vs. previous week; -20,000 vs. the same week a year earlier). 4-week moving average: 211,750 (-13.9% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Housing Market Index (October 2018, Index (>50= Greater Percentage of Homebuilders Viewing Housing Market as “Good,” seasonally adjusted): 68 (vs. September 2018: 67, vs. October 2017: 68).
Housing Starts (September 2018, Starts, seasonally adjusted annualized rate): 1.201 million units (-5.3% vs. August 2018, +3.7% vs. September 2017).
State Employment (September 2018, Nonfarm Payrolls, seasonally adjusted): Payrolls declined significantly vs. July 2018 in 3 states and were essentially unchanged in 47 states and the District of Columbia. Payrolls grew significantly vs. August 2017 in 37 states.
Treasury International Capital Flows (August 2018, Net Foreign Purchases of U.S. Securities, not seasonally adjusted): +$77.1 billion (vs. July 2018: +$32.4 billion, vs. August 2017: +$40.6 billion).
FOMC minutes

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.

Retail Sales and Inflation Took August Off: September 10 – 14

Retail sales and inflation moderated their trajectory as summer wrapped up. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending September 14.  

#1Retail sales cooled a bit from their recent torrid pace during August. The Census Bureau estimates retail and food services sales totaled $509.0 billion, up 0.1 percent for the month and 6.6 percent ahead of its August 2017 sales levels. July’s sales were revised upward to 0.7 percent gain (had been reported previously as a 0.5 percent gain). Slumping were sales at car dealers, where activity fell 0.8 percent. Higher prices at the pump led to a 1.7 percent sales gain at gas stations. Net of auto dealers and gas stations, core retail sales edged up 0.2 percent following a 0.9 percent jump in July. Growing were sales at retailers focused on health/personal care (+0.5 percent), electronics/appliances (+0.4 percent), sporting goods/hobbies (+0.2 percent), and general merchandisers (+0.1 percent). Sales also grew 0.2 percent at bars/restaurants. August was not a strong sales month at apparel retailers (-1.7 percent), department stores (-1.0 percent), and furniture stores (-0.3 percent).Retail Sales July-August 2018 091418

#2Core inflation slowed in August. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) grew 0.2 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month, per the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This matches July’s 0.2 percent gain and left CPI up 2.7 percent over the past year. Energy CPI grew for the first time in three months with a 1.9 percent gain—gasoline prices rose 3.0 percent in August and have surged 20.3 percent over the past year. Food CPI increased 0.1 percent. Net of energy and food, core CPI grew by 0.1 percent, its smallest gain since April. Rising were prices for used cars/trucks (+0.4 percent), shelter (+0.3 percent), transportation services (+0.3 percent). Prices fell for apparel (-1.6 percent), medical commodities (-0.3 percent), and medical care (-0.2 percent). Even with the slight slowdown, core CPI has risen 2.2 percent over the past year.

Final demand wholesale prices dropped 0.1 percent in August on a seasonally adjusted basis, the first decline in the Producer Price Index (PPI) since February 2018 and follows a flat report for July. The core PPI measure—which removed energy, food, and trade services—inched up 0.1 percent.  The former has grown 2.8 percent over the past year while the latter has a 12-month comparable of +2.9 percent. PPI for final demand goods was flat for August, including a 0.6 drop for PPI for final demand foods (including the impact of falling prices for fruits/melon, meats, and eggs) and a 0.4 percent gain for final demand energy (including rises for residential electricity and gasoline). Final demand PPI for services slipped 0.1 percent as trade services PPI (measuring wholesaler and retailer margins) slumped 0.9 percent and that for transportation/warehousing fell 0.6 percent.   

#3The number of job openings continued to rise this summer. There were a seasonally adjusted 6.939 million open jobs at the end of July, per the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This was up 117,000 from June, 11.9 percent ahead from a year earlier, and higher than the 6.234 million people that had indicated being unemployed. Private sector employers reported having 6.319 million job openings (+11.3 percent versus July 2017), with the industries enjoying the largest year-to-year percentage gains being manufacturing (+29.4 percent), leisure/hospitality (+21.1 percent), retail (+15.6 percent), and trade/transportation/utilities (+14.9 percent). Hiring was flat during July at 5.679 million (+3.3 percent versus July 2017 (+3.3 percent versus July 2017), with private sector hiring at 5.339 million. Hiring has grown the greatest over the past year on a percentage basis in manufacturing (+15.9 percent), retail (+14.2 percent), trade/transportation/utilities (+10.7 percent), and accommodation/food services (+7.7 percent). Also flat during the month were the number of separations as 5.534 million people left their jobs during the month (+2.4 percent versus July 2017). The number of people voluntarily departing their jobs continued to rise, growing by 106,000 during July to 3.583 million (up 10.6 percent over the past year) while layoffs dropped by 50,000 to 1.602 million (-11.8 percent versus July 2017).

#4Manufacturing output grew at a slower pace in August. The Federal Reserve reports that manufacturing output increased 0.2 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month, down from gains of 0.7 percent and 0.3 percent during June and July, respectively. Production in the manufacturing sector has grown 3.1 percent over the past year. Production of durable goods jumped 1.0 percent, boosted by strong output increases for motor vehicles, primary metals, and machinery. Production of nondurables slumped 0.5 percent as only textiles were the only segment to report an output gain. Overall industrial production increased 0.4 percent during August, matching July’s gain but off from June’s 0.6 percent increase. Industrial production has soared 4.9 percent over the past year. The oil and gas sectors led a 0.7 percent bounce in mining output (+14.1 percent versus August 2017) while hotter weather pushed up utility output 1.2 percent (+4.8 percent versus August 2017).

#5Small business owner optimism rises to an at least 45-year high. The Small Business Optimism Index from the National Federation of Independent Business grew by 9/10ths of a point in August to 108.8 (1986=100), up 3.5 points from the same month a year earlier and representing the highest reading for the index since its launch in 1983. Six of the 10 index components improved from their July readings, led by plans to expand inventories (up six points), plans to increase employment (up three points) and plans to make capital outlays (up three points). Falling were index components linked to expected real sales (down three points), expected credit conditions (down two points), and expectations for the economy to improve (down one point).

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending September 8, 2018, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 204,000 (-1,000 vs. previous week; -63,000 vs. the same week a year earlier, lowest since December 1969). 4-week moving average: 208,000 (-19.6% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Import Prices (August 2018, All Imported Goods, not seasonally adjusted): -0.6% vs. July 2018, +3.7% vs. August 2017.  Nonfuel Imports: -0.1% vs. July 2018, +0.9% vs. August 2017.
Export Prices (August 2018, All Exported Goods, not seasonally adjusted): -0.1% vs. July 2018, +3.6% vs. August 2017. Nonagricultural Exports: -0.2% vs. July 2018, +4.1% vs. August 2017.
University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers (September 2018-preliminary, Index of Consumer Sentiment (1966Q1=100), seasonally adjusted): 100.8 (vs. August 2018: 96.2, vs. September 2017: 95.1).
Business Inventories (July 2018, Manufacturers’ and Trade Inventories, seasonally adjusted): $1.950 trillion (+0.6% vs. June 2018, +4.3% vs. July 2017).
Consumer Credit (July 2018, Outstanding Consumer Credit (Non-Real Estate) Balances, seasonally adjusted): $3.918 trillion (+$17.6 billion vs. June 2018, +4.6% vs. July 2017).
Beige Book

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.

Cash Registers Rang Louder in July: August 13 – 17

Retail sales expanded while growth in manufacturing slowed. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending August 17.

#1Retail sales heated up in July. The Census Bureau estimates retail and food services sales rose 0.5 percent to a seasonally adjusted $507.5 billion. This was an improvement from the downwardly revised 0.2 percent sales gain in June. Sales grew 0.2 percent at auto dealers/parts stores and 0.8 percent at gas stations (think higher gas prices). Net of auto dealers and gas stations, core retail sales jumped 0.6 percent in July following a 0.2 percent bump in June. Sales improved during the month at apparel retailers (+1.3 percent), restaurants/bars (+1.3 percent), department stores (+1.2 percent), grocery stores (+0.8 percent), and electronics/appliance retailers (+0.1 percent). Sales lost traction at retailers focused on sporting goods/hobbies (-1.7 percent), furniture (-0.5 percent), and health/personal care (-0.4 percent). Retail sales have risen 6.4 percent over the past year while the core retail sales measure has a 12-month comparable of +5.6 percent.Retail Sales June-July 2018 081718

#2Industrial production slowed in July. The Federal Reserve reports industrial production crept up a modest 0.1 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month following a 1.0 percent jump in June. Growth in manufacturing slowed to a 0.3 percent increase in July after having surged 0.8 percent during the previous month. Production of durable goods gained 0.4 percent (including increases of around 1.0 percent for motor vehicles and computers/electronics) while the output of nondurables inched up 0.2 percent (with higher output of apparel, petroleum/coal products, chemicals, and plastics/rubber products). Mining output, which has surged 12.9 percent over the past year, slipped 0.3 percent during July (even as oil and gas extraction continued to rise). Utility output slowed for the third straight month with a 0.5 percent decline.

#3Forward-looking economic indicators further strengthened in July. The Conference Board’s Leading Economic Indicators (LEI) jumped by 7/10ths of a point to 110.7 (2016=100). This was an improvement from the 6/10ths of a point gain in June and leaves the LEI 5.1 percent ahead of its year-ago reading. July’s increase was broad-based as nine of the LEI’s ten components made positive contributions, led by the count of jobless claims staying near multi-decade lows. The coincident index grew by 2/10ths of a point to 104.2, a 2.4 percent increase from a year earlier as all four components made positive contributions. The lagging index slipped by 2/10ths of a point to 105.2 with only two of seven components growing during the month. The backward-looking measure was still 2.3 percent above its July 2017 mark. The press release noted that the LEI’s reading indicates economic growth will be “at a solid pace for the remainder of this year.”

#4Housing starts sputtered during July. Housing starts edged up 0.9 percent to a seasonally adjusted annualized rate of 1.168 million units, per the Census Bureau. This was a weak rebound to June’s 12.9 percent drop and left housing starts 1.4 percent below the July 2017 pace. Starts of single-family home gained 1.9 percent while those of construction with more five or more units increased 3.1 percent. Starts weakened in the West (-19.6 percent) and Northeast (-4.0 percent) but improved in both the Midwest (+11.6 percent) and South (+10.4 percent). Looking towards the future, the annualized rate of issued building permits grew 1.5 percent during the month to 1.311 million permits (+4.2 percent versus July 2017). Issued permits increased for both single-family (+1.9 percent) and multi-family (+1.7 percent). Fewer homes were completed during the month—the annualized count of homes completed slumped 1.7 percent to 1.188 million units (-0.8 percent versus July 2017). Single-family home completions plummeted 5.2 percent during the month while multi-family completions gained 8.2 percent.

#5Small business owner optimism inches ever so close to a 35-year high. The Small Business Optimism Index added 7/10ths of a point in July to a seasonally adjusted reading of 107.9 (1986=100). This was not only a 2.7 point gain from a year earlier, it was the measure’s best reading since July 1983 (which itself was the best reading for the National Federation of Independent Business index in its 45-year history). Six of the ten index components improved from their June readings, including three-point gains for indices tracking expected real sales, plans to increase employment, and whether it is a good time to expand. Only two measures—current inventories and plans to increase inventories—declined from their June readings. The press release notes that business owners “anticipate more sales and better business conditions.”

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending August 11, 2018, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 212,000 (-2,000 vs. previous week; -24,000 vs. the same week a year earlier). 4-week moving average: 215,500 (-10.5% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Import Prices (July 2018, All Imports, not seasonally adjusted): Unchanged vs. June 2018, +4.8% vs. July 2017. Nonfuel imports:  -0.3% vs. June 2018, +1.3% vs. July 2017.
Export Prices (July 2018, All Exports, not seasonally adjusted): -0.5% vs. June 2018, +4.3% vs. July 2017. Nonagricultural imports: Unchanged vs. June 2018, +5.0% vs. July2017.
Housing Market Index (August 2018, Index (>50=”Good” housing market, seasonally adjusted): 67 (vs. July 2018: 68, vs. August 2017: 67).
Productivity (2018 Q2-preliminary, Nonfarm Business Labor Productivity, seasonally adjusted annualized rate): +2.9% vs. 2018Q1 +1.3% vs. 2017Q2.
State Employment (July 2018, Change in Nonfarm Payrolls, seasonally adjusted): Vs. June 2018: Increased in 6 states, decreased in 1, and essentially unchanged 43 states and the District of Columbia. Vs. July 2017: Increased in 34 states and essentially unchanged in 16 states and the District of Columbia
University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers (August 2018-preliminary, Index of Consumer Sentiment (1966Q1=100), seasonally adjusted): 95.3 (July 2018: 97.9 August 2017: 96.8).
Treasury International Capital Flows (June 2018, Net Foreign Purchases of U.S. Securities, not seasonally adjusted): -$45.5 billion (vs. May 2018: +$20.3 billion, vs. June 2017: +$35.5 billion).

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.