Retail Sales Up, Industrial Production Down: January 13 – 17

Retail sales ended 2019 on a positive note while job openings fell sharply. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending January 17.

#1Holiday retail sales were decent. The Census Bureau estimates retail and food services sales grew 0.3 percent in December to a seasonally adjusted $529.6 billion. Sales slowed 1.3 percent at auto dealers/parts stores but rose 2.8 percent at gas stations. Net of sales at auto dealers/parts stores and gas stations, core retail sales bloomed 0.5 percent in December and were 5.7 percent of the year-ago pace. A quick look at combined November-December sales—a proxy for the recent holiday season—finds core retail sales were a solid 4.2 percent ahead of that of the prior year. In December, sales rose at retailers focused on apparel (+1.6 percent), building materials (+1.4 percent), sporting goods/hobbies (+0.9 percent), groceries (+0.4 percent), and furniture (+0.1 percent). Restaurant sales eked out a 0.2 percent improvement. Sales fell 0.8 percent at department stores.

#2Industrial production slowed for the third time in four months in December. The Federal Reserve estimates industrial production dropped a seasonally adjusted 0.3 percent, following a 0.8 percent increase in November and two consecutive 0.5 percent decreases in September and October. The headline index drop occurred despite a 0.2 percent improvement in manufacturing output (following a 1.0 percent bounce in November). Durable goods production slowed 0.2 percent (including a 4.6 percent slump in motor vehicle/parts output). In contrast, the output of nondurables expanded by 0.6 percent. Mining output advanced for the first time since August with a 1.3 percent gain while utilities production fell 5.6 percent due to moderate winter weather. Industrial production was 1.0 percent below that of a year earlier while manufacturing output was 1.3 percent behind the year-ago pace. 

#3Job openings shrank in November. The Bureau of Labor Statistics states that there were a seasonally adjusted 6.800 million job openings at the end of the month, down 561,000 from October and 10.8 percent from the year earlier. Even with the decline, there were more job openings than the number of unemployed adults (5.753 million). Private-sector job openings were off 12.7 percent from the same month a year earlier, with sizable year-to-year percentage declines in retail (-32.5 percent), construction (-23.3 percent), manufacturing (-22.6 percent), financial activities (-11.7 percent), accommodations/food services (-9.5 percent), and professional/business services (-7.8 percent). The number of job hires grew by 39,000 in November to 5.821 million, which matched the November 2018 count. 5.648 million people left their jobs in November, down a mere 4,000 from October and up a modest 0.9 percent from a year earlier. 3.536 million people quit their jobs during the month (+39,000 vs. October 2019 and +4.6 percent vs. November 2018) while the number of people laid off declined 46,000 to 1.749 million (-7.4 percent vs. November 2018).

#4Inflation took a holiday in December. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased 0.2 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month, down from gains of 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in October and November, respectively. Food CPI grew 0.2 percent while energy CPI jumped 1.4 percent, the latter growing due to gasoline prices jumping 2.8 percent. Net of food and energy, core CPI increased 0.1 percent, its smallest gain since September. Rising were prices for medical care commodities (+1.5 percent) and services (+0.4 percent), apparel (+0.4 percent), shelter (+0.2 percent), and new vehicles (+0.1 percent). Prices fell for used cars/trucks (-0.8 percent) and transportation services (-0.3 percent). Both headline and core CPI have risen 2.3 percent over the past year.

Final demand Producer Price Index (PPI) inched up a seasonally adjusted 0.1 percent in December after holding steady during the prior month. The core measure of wholesale prices, which nets out of food, energy, and trade services, had a matching 0.1 percent increase. PPI for goods grew 0.3 percent. Prices jumped 1.5 percent for wholesale energy (gasoline: +3.7 percent) but fell 0.3 percent for wholesale food. PPI for final demand services held steady in December even as trade services PPI (measuring retailer and wholesaler margins) decreased 0.3 percent. Over the past year, final demand PPI has risen a modest 1.3 percent. In contrast, the 12-month comparable for the core measure has gained 1.5 percent.

#5Housing starts rose to a 13-year high in December. The Census Bureau reports housing starts jumped 16.9 percent during the month to a seasonally adjusted annualized rate of 1.375 million units. This was 40.8 percent ahead of the year-ago starts rate and the measure’s highest mark since October 2006. Starts surged for both single-family (+11.2 percent vs. November 2019, +29.6 percent vs. December 2018) and multi-family units (+32.0 percent vs. November 2019, +74.6 percent vs. December 2018). Looking towards the future, the annualized count of issue housing permits declined 3.9 percent in December to 1.416 million (+5.8 percent vs. December 2018). The annualized count of housing completions grew 5.1 percent during the month to 1.277 million homes, up 19.6 percent from the same month a year earlier. 

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending January 11, 2020, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 204,000 (-10,000 vs. previous week; -13,000 vs. the same week a year earlier). 4-week moving average: 216,250 -3.0% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Import Prices (December 2019, All Imports, not seasonally adjusted): +0.3% vs. November 2019, +0.5% vs. December 2018. Nonfuel Imports: Unchanged vs. November 2019, -1.4% vs. December 2018.
Export Prices (December 2019, All Exports, not seasonally adjusted): -0.2% vs. November 2019, -0.7% vs. December 2018. Non-Agricultural Exports: -0.1% vs. November 2019, -0.6% vs. December 2018.
University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers (January 2020-preliminary, Index of Consumer Sentiment (1966Q1=100), seasonally adjusted):  99.1 (vs. December 2019: 99.3, January 2019: 91.2.
Housing Market Index (January 2020, Index (>50=More homebuilders view the housing market as “good” versus “poor,” seasonally adjusted): 75 (vs. December 2019: 76, January 2019: 58).
Small Business Optimism Index (December 2019, Index (1986=100), seasonally adjusted): 102.7 (vs. November 2019: 104.7, vs. December 2018: 104.4).
Business Inventories (November 2019, Manufacturers’ and Trade Inventories, seasonally adjusted): $2.037 trillion (-0.2% vs. October 2019, +2.8% vs. November 2018.
Treasury International Capital Flows (November 2019, Net Foreign Purchases of U.S. Securities, not seasonally adjusted): +$7.3 billion (vs. October 2019: +$4.3 billion, November 2018: -$3.0 billion.
Beige Book

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.

The Fed Takes a Pause…So Do Consumers: December 9 – 13

FOMC voting members signal that the rate cuts are over, at least for now. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending December 13.

#1The Fed left alone its short-term interest target and expects not making any changes in 2020 either. The policy statement released after last week’s Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting contained the exact verbiage from last October in describing the state of the U.S. economy. This included noting a “strong” labor market and an economy expanding at a “moderate rate.” As a result, the FOMC voting members agreed unanimously to keep the fed funds target at a range of 1.50 percent and 1.75 percent. The committee saw their monetary policy as “appropriate to support sustained expansion of economic activity, strong labor market conditions, and inflation near the Committee’s symmetric 2 percent objective.”

Economic projections released in conjunction with the policy statement indicated that FOMC members do not expect to change course in 2020. The median forecast found the U.S. economy growing 2.0 percent next year with an unemployment rate of 3.5 percent and inflation slightly below the Fed’s 2.0 percent target. The same forecast has no fed funds rate cuts next year. Thirteen of 17 FOMC members expect the fed funds target rate will hold steady in 2020 while four voting members anticipate a quarter-point rate increase.

#2The start of the holiday season retail sales fails to impress. The Census Bureau estimates retail food services sales grew 0.2 percent during the month to a seasonally adjusted $528.0 billion, off from October’s 0.4 percent increase. Boosting the headline sales figures were advances at both car dealers/parts stores (+0.5 percent) and gas stations (+0.7 percent). Net of sales at both car dealers and gas stations, core retail sales were unchanged in November. Sales slumped at health/personal care stores (-1.1 percent), apparel retailers (-0.6 percent), department stores (-0.6 percent), sporting goods/hobby retailers (-0.5 percent), and restaurant/bars (-0.3 percent). Sales grew at stores focused on electronics/appliances (+0.7 percent), and groceries (+0.3 percent), and furniture (+0.1 percent). Both the headline and core retail sales measures have risen a good, but not great 3.3 percent over the past year.

#3Consumer prices rose in November. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) grew at a 0.3 percent seasonally adjusted rate, following October’s 0.4 percent rise. Energy CPI rose 0.8 percent, down from October’s 2.7 percent surge (gasoline: +1.1 percent versus October 2019), while food CPI edged up 0.1 percent. Net of both energy and food, core CPI increased 0.2 percent, matching October’s advance. Prices rose for used cars/trucks (+0.6 percent), medical care services (+0.4 percent), shelter services (+0.3 percent), apparel (+0.1 percent), and medical care commodities (+0.1 percent). New vehicle prices slipped 0.1 percent. Over the past year, CPI has risen 2.1 percent while core CPI has risen 2.3 percent.

#4Wholesale prices mellowed in November. The Producer Price Index (PPI) for final demand held steady during the month on a seasonally adjusted basis following a 0.4 percent gain in October. Also holding constant was the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ core measure of wholesale prices (final demand PPI net of foods, energy, and trade services), after inching up 0.1 percent during the prior month. Wholesale prices jumped 1.1 percent for food (boosted by eggs and vegetables) and 0.6 percent for energy (gasoline: +2.3 percent). Core goods PPI climbed 0.2 percent, its biggest single-month gain since July. PPI for final demand services dropped 0.3 percent, pulled down a 0.6 percent slump in PPI for trade services. Over the past year, final demand PPI has grown by a mild 1.1 percent while the core measure had a 12-month comparable of +1.3 percent.

#5Small business owners were more positive in November. The Small Business Owner Optimism Index, from the National Federation of Independent Business, added 2.3 points during the month to a seasonally adjusted reading of 104.7 (1986=100). This was the measure’s best reading since July and left it just 1/10th of a point below that of a year earlier. Seven of ten index components improved in November, led by sizeable gains for those related to earnings trends, whether it is a good time to expand, current inventories, and current job openings. Only two index components slipped: expected real sales and plans to increase inventories. The press release said that small business “[o]wners are aggressively moving forward with their business plans.”

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending December 7, 2019, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 252,000 (+49,000 vs. previous week; +39,000 vs. the same week a year earlier). 4-week moving average: 224,000 (-0.4% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Import Prices (November 2019, All Imports, not seasonally adjusted): +0.2% vs. October 2019, -1.3% vs. November 2018. Nonfuel Imports: -0.1% vs. October 2019, -1.4% vs. November 2018.
Export Prices (November 2019, All Exports, not seasonally adjusted): +0.2% vs. October 2019, -1.3% vs. November 2018. Nonagricultural Exports: Unchanged vs. October 2019, -1.6% vs. November 2018.
Productivity (Nonfarm Labor Productivity, 2019Q3, seasonally adjusted annualized rate): -0.2% vs. 2019Q2, +1.5% vs. 2018Q3.
Business Inventories (October 2019, Manufacturers’ and Trade Inventories, seasonally adjusted): +0.2% vs. September 2019, +3.1% vs. October 2018. 

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.

Retail Sales Gain, Manufacturing Does Not: November 11 – 15

Retail sales made a small comeback in October while manufacturing let up again. Here are the five things we learned from U.S. economic data released during the week ending November 15.

#1Retail sales bounced back in October. Retail and food services sales grew 0.3 percent during the month to a seasonally adjusted $526.5 billion. This followed a 0.3 percent drop in September for the Census Bureau measure. Sales rose at both auto dealers & parts stores (+0.5 percent) and gas stations (+1.1 percent). Net of both, core retail sales inched up 0.1 percent after slipping 0.1 percent during the prior month. Sales gained at general merchandisers (+0.4 percent) and grocery stores (+0.4 percent) but stumbled at stores focused on apparel (-1.0 percent), furniture (-0.9 percent), sporting goods/hobbies (-0.8 percent), building materials (-0.5 percent), and electronics/appliances (-0.4 percent). Retail sales have risen 3.1 percent over the past year, while core retail sales have a more robust 12-month comparable of +3.7 percent.

#2A now-ended strike dampened manufacturing output in October. The Federal Reserve estimates that manufacturing output fell 0.6 percent during the month following a 0.5 percent decline in September. Durable goods product slumped 1.2 percent, harmed in part by the now-settled General Motors strike. Net of automobiles, durable goods manufacturing slowed 0.2 percent. Nondurables output held steady during the month. Overall industrial production had its worst month in 17 months with a 0.8 percent decline. Mining output declined 0.7 percent while utilities production plummeted 2.6 percent. Manufacturing production was 1.5 percent below that of a year earlier, while overall industrial production was 1.1 percent behind its October 2018 pace. 

#3Higher gasoline prices heated up not only consumer inflation in October… The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) jumped 0.4 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis during the month, the biggest single-month gain since March. Gasoline prices surged 3.7 percent, pushing up energy CPI 2.7 percent. Food CPI jumped 0.2 percent (its highest one-month gain since May). Net of energy and food, core CPI increased 0.2 percent. Rising in October were prices for used cars/trucks (+1.3 percent), medical care commodities (+1.2 percent), medical care services (+0.9 percent), shelter (+0.1 percent), and transportation services (+0.1 percent). Prices decreased for apparel (-1.8 percent) and new vehicles (-0.2 percent). CPI has risen 1.8 percent over the past year, while the core measure has a 12-month comparable of +2.3 percent.

#4…But also wholesale prices. Final demand Producer Price Index (PPI) also rose a seasonally adjusted 0.4 percent in October, the biggest gain in six months for the Bureau of Labor Statistics gauge. The core measure, which nets out energy, food, and trade services, had a more modest 0.1 percent increase. Goods PPI jumped 0.7 percent, half of which came from a 7.3 percent surge in wholesale gasoline prices. Netting out gains for energy (+2.8 percent) and food (+1.3 percent), core goods PPI held steady in October. Final demand services PPI gained 0.3 percent, pushed up by a 0.8 percent rise in trade services (wholesale and retail margins). Headline PPI has grown a relatively modest 1.1 percent over the past year while the core measure has risen 1.5 percent.

#5Optimism improved slightly among small business owners. The Small Business Owner Optimism Index from the National Federation of Independent Business added 6/10ths of a point during October to a seasonally adjusted reading of 102.4 (1986=100). While this was the first increase in three months, the measure remained five full points below its year-ago mark. Eight of the index’s ten components improved during the month, led by gains for measures tied plans to increase both inventories and capital outlays. Two components dropped during the month: earnings trends and current job openings. The press release noted small business owners “are not experiencing the predicted turmoil” of a recession.

Other U.S. economic data released over the past week:
Jobless Claims (week ending November 9, 2019, First-Time Claims, seasonally adjusted): 225,000 (+14,000 vs. previous week; +2,000 vs. the same week a year earlier). 4-week moving average: 217,000 (-1.0% vs. the same week a year earlier).
Import Prices (October 2019, All Imports, not seasonally adjusted): -0.5% vs. September 2019, -3.0% vs. October 2018. Nonfuel Imports: -0.2% vs. September 2019, -1.4% vs. October 2018.
Export Prices (October 2019, All Exports, not seasonally adjusted): -0.1% vs. September 2019, -2.2% vs. October 2018. Nonagricultural Exports: -0.1% vs. September 2019, -2.7% vs. October 2018.
Monthly Treasury Statement (October 2019, Federal Budget Deficit): -$134.5 billion (vs. October 2018: -$100.5 billion).
Business Inventories (September 2019, Manufacturers’ and Trade Inventories, seasonally adjusted): $2.042 trillion (unchanged vs. August 2019, +3.7% vs. September 2018).

The opinions expressed here are not necessarily those of Kevin’s current employer. No endorsements are implied.